History of nanotechnology

History of nanotechnology? Do you believe it exist since thousands years ago? people used natural fabrics such as flex, cotton, wool, and silk and make them into products. The become special because they developed a network of pores of size 1–20 nm owing to their nanoporous structure, natural fabric possesses which has high utilitarian properties of absorbing sweat, quickly swelling, and getting dried soon.

Romans in the pre-Christian era found a method to produce metals that has nanometric dimensions for glass-making process. One of the best example is a cup describing the death of King Lycurgus ( 800 bc) contains silver and gold nanoparticles. when a light source is placed inside the cup, its color changes from green to red. Another example for past use of metallic nanoparticles is the stained glass windows of the great medieval cathedral.

The some colors of certain Mayan paintings also a good point for presence of metallic nanoparticles. Mayan artisans lived in the eighth century had the unique pigment that now know as Maya Blue have endured their lively blue tones for more than 12 centuries of harsh environments.
Maya Blue is not an ordinary organic dye or any simple mineral. It is a hybrid organic– inorganic nano composite that the organic dye molecules are protected within palygorskite, a complex natural clay.

History of nanotechnology
Lycurgus cups and ancient Maya fresco painting

Photography field which was developed in the 18th – 19th centuries, provides a most recent example of the use of silver nanoparticles. In the early 1940’s, precipitated and fumed silica nanoparticles were being manufactured and sold in the US and Germany as a substitutes for rubber reinforcements.

In 1857, Faraday had described the use of colloidal gold in his experiments. Once at Royal Society, Faraday presented a purple color slide, showing that it contained “gold reduced in exceedingly fin particles, which will be diffused, produced a ruby red fluid The various preparations of gold, whether ruby, green, violet or blue etc. consist of that substance in a metallic divided state”.

The Nobel Prize winner for Quantum Electrodynamics, Richard Feynman, said, “Nature has been working at the level of atoms and molecules for millions of years, so why do we not?” After that, since 1959, nanotechnology has made big evolution not only in technical disciplines but also in medicine and pharmaceutics. Then world began to speculating on the possibilities and potential of nanometric materials and techniques.
Feynman’s talk was the first academic talk that acceptable for nanotechnology, the direct manipulation of individual atoms (molecular manufacturing). So Richard Feynman is considered as the “Father of Nanotechnology,” although he never explicitly mentioned the term “Nanotechnology.”

richard feynman
Richard Feynman

The evolution of integrated chips (IC) may also be considered as the part of history of nanotechnology. It become substitute for the vaccum tube, that take large area and process power. The firs transistor invented in 1947 and to keep the demand of miniaturization, the dimensions of the transistor have
been reduced considerably in the past 3 decades. In 2002, the nanosize was reached with the achieved size of a single transistor as 90 nm. Late 2014, single transistor in an Intel Core 2 Quad Processor is become 45nm.

Norio Taniguchi is the one who use of the term “nanotechnology” at first in 1974 at the International Conference on Precision Engineering (ICPE). His definition says that “production technology to get extra high accuracy and ultra-fin dimensions, that is, the preciseness and finest on the order of 1nm (nanometer), 10 −9 m, in length.”

Improvement of nanotechnology has been started by the invention of two analytical tools ( scanning tunneling microscope – STM and the atomic force microscope – AFM ) that have revolutionized the imaging (& also manipulation) of surfaces at the nanoscale. The AFM and STM are capable of imaging surfaces at anatomic resolution. AFM and STM were invented by Binning and his coworkers at IBM Zurich. Invention of these versatile tools practically opened the doors of nanoworld to the scientists.

At last of this article of History of nanotechnology, another development is the studies on the synthesis and properties of metallic and semiconductor nano-crystals led to a fast increasing
number of metal and metal oxide nano-particles and quantum dots. In 2000, the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) was founded to coordinate Federal Nanotechnology research and development.

Milestones Associated with the Evolution of Nanoscience and
Nanotechnology
Milestones Associated with the Evolution of Nanoscience and
Nanotechnology

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