It is important to talk about cancer therapy and treatment by using Nanotechnology.The nanotechnological applications in medical sector is referred to as nanomedicine. Basically , this area of application uses nanomaterials to diagnose, monitor, treat, and prevent diseases (and nano-enabled techniques too) . The accurate targeting and quantification of molecules indicative of cellular disorders at the single-molecule level is a demanding task for current high-throughput analysis systems. The mixing of nanoparticles with other nano based materials has the potential to address this huge challenge and provide technologies hat enable diagnoses at the level of single cells and single molecules.
Diagnosis of a disease is one of the most critical steps in healthcare. Diagnoses are wanted quickly, but should also be reliable, specific and accurate, and with the minimum risk of “false positives.” Diagnosis of cancer using nanotechnology also a huge step and should be 99% correct.
Nanobarcodes (Cancer Therapy and Treatment by using Nanotechnology)
The unique properties of nanoparticles, use to create multiplexed detection systems in the form of nanobarcodes, as a example relationship between particle size and color. Great example for the above application is , use quantum dots to create different color-based codes.
And also, fragments of DNA on nanospheres can be used to create a “bio-barcode,” for example, for protein detection. A bio-barcode has been used to detect small levels of the cancer marker Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in serum.The results will be the increased sensitivity to the PSA protein compared to conventional protein assays, demonstrating the potential of such approaches for detecting cancers at an earlier stage
Biomarkers (Cancer Therapy and Treatment by using Nanotechnology)
A biomarker is an indicator of a biological process or state, such as a disease, or the response to a clinical theraphy. This can be an changes of a gene, protein production, or even a physical state of a cell. The aim biomarkers is the diagnose illnesses before, or at the first symptoms, in this way making in vivo imaging a tool for the early detection of a disease.
Nanoparticles have been used for early diagnosis of infectious disease. The nanoparticles attach to the blood stream indicate the start of an infection.
When the sample is scanned for Raman scattering the nanoparticles improve the Raman signal, by detecting the molecules indicate the infectious disease at a very early stage. Viruses, bacteria and other micro components in the blood samples can be removed by using silver nanorods in the diagnostic system, by clearing the Raman spectroscopy signals of the components. By using this method virus and other components can be identified in less than a hour. Carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles are being used in a sensor that detects proteins indicative of oral cancer. A test has shown this sensor to be accurate in detecting oral cancer and provides results in less than an hour. Few other nanomaterial-based technologies for early detection of diseases, which are at an advanced level of development, include the following:
- Early detection of cancer tumor: The nanoparticles attached to a cancer release “biomarkers,” aka specific peptides. The reason for that is nanoparticle carries several peptides, a high concentration of these biomarkers will occur even at very early stages of cancer, allowing early detection of the disease.
- Early diagnosis of brain cancer: It uses magnetic nanoparticles and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The magnetic nanoparticles attach to the blood stream called microvesicles, which born in brain cancer cells. NMR is then used to detect these microvesicles/magnetic nanoparticle clusters, for the early diagnosis.
Diagnostic Imaging (Cancer Therapy and Treatment by using Nanotechnology)
Optical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence labeling, are used extensively in clinical diagnosis.
But, the organic fluorophores used currently are not photo stable and have low intensity. So, fluorescence proteins (green fluorescence protein) or bio luminescence system ( luciferin/luciferase) applications are limited because they cannot be performed as multicolor assays. By using nanoparticles can overcome these limitations.
The second step is vivo imaging, which searches for the symptoms of the disease within the live tissue suspected of being
infected without the need to perform surgery. Nanotechnologies is doing a very important process in this area, by developing molecular imaging agents.
The latest invention in the area of imaging deal with the capability of tracking changes at the cellular and molecular level through the analysis of some specific biological markers, and the technique is known as “targeted molecular imaging” or “nano-imaging.”
Techniques such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), MRI and nuclear medicine (NM) are well-established imaging techniques.
Normally, imaging techniques could only detect changes in the tissue when the symptoms of the disease were become advance. but introducing nanomaterials to mark the the tumor area could increase imaging specificity and resolution.